This is an update of a post I wrote in 2019 for a talk given at a Shortcut engineering Lunch and Learn.

(By the way, I no longer work at Shortcut and I am looking for a new role. Perhaps you need someone who knows Datomic?)


Datomic’s immutable index structures get most of the attention, but there are even more foundational structures underneath them: two counters, the entity id, and the Datom.


What follows is not meant for those new to Datomic. This is a pretty deep dive into internals and not all of this is officially documented.

It’s also very focused on Datomic on-prem specifically, and doesn’t investigate cloud. I suspect cloud’s entity id and Datom internals are very similar though.

Because these are internal implementation details, they can change at any time. You shouldn’t rely on any behavior that isn’t in Datomic’s official documentation–or if you do, make sure you have regression tests!

Caveat Lector out of the way, let’s get started.

The Counters

Every Datomic database has two counters:

  1. the T counter and
  2. an attribute and partition entity counter which I will call the “element” counter.

The T Counter

The T counter is 42 bits. It advances whenever most kinds of entity ids are created. Entity ids are created indirectly via a temporary id (tempid) failing to resolve to an existing entity during a transaction. It is never rewound, even if the entity id is not used. This may happen if the transaction that created the entity id is aborted. The T counter is kept at the root of the database tree where it is called “next-t”. You can see its value using (d/next-t (d/db db)) in Datomic on-prem–this will be the T of the next transaction entity.

Assume db is a freshly-created Datomic on-prem database:

(d/basis-t db)
=> 66

The next-t of fresh databases starts at 1000. Note that the next-t is always greater than the basis-t!

(d/next-t db)
=> 1000

(clojure.repl/doc d/next-t)
Returns the t one beyond the highest reachable via this db value.

The Element Counter

The schema and partition entity (or “elements”) counter is 19 bits. It advances whenever an attribute or partition entity id is created, and it is also never rewound. Unlike the T counter, this doesn’t seem to be stored as a separate counter, but derived from the size of a special cache.

Every database object keeps a fast in-memory cache of every attribute and partition entity in a vector called :elements. Data about the entity is stored in an index corresponding to its entity id. The size of this vector is the next value in the element counter.

There is no public api to the elements cache, but you can retrieve it from a database object using associative lookup:

(def elements (:elements db))

The index in elements is the entity id of the cached item:

(nth elements 0)
=> #datomic.db.Partition{:id 0,                     ;; entity id
                         :kw :db.part/db}           ;; ident

(nth elements 10)
=> #datomic.db.Attribute{:id             10,        ;; entity id
                         :kw             :db/ident, ;; ident
                         :vtypeid        21,        ;; value type
                         :cardinality    35,        ;; ... etc
                         :isComponent    false,
                         :unique         38,
                         :index          false,
                         :storageHasAVET true,
                         :needsAVET      true,
                         :noHistory      false,
                         :fulltext       false}

The vector has nil in indexes that don’t correspond to schema or partitions. For example, the :db/add primitive “transaction function”:

(d/pull db ['*] 1)
=> #:db{:id    1,
        :ident :db/add,
        :doc   "Primitive assertion. All transactions eventually [...]"}
;; :db/add is still special, but it's not an attribute or partition entity!
(nth elements 1)
=> nil

This is the size of the cache, thus the value of the counter:

(count elements)
=> 72

Thus next attribute I create will have entity id 72:

@(d/transact conn [{:db/ident :my/attr
                    :db/valueType :db.type/long
                    :db/cardinality :db.cardinality/many
                    :db.install/_attribute :db.part/db}])

And now it’s in the element cache at index 72:

(nth (:elements (d/db conn)) 72)
=> #datomic.db.Attribute{:id             72,
                         :kw             :my/attr,
                         :vtypeid        22,
                         :cardinality    36,
                         :isComponent    false,
                         :unique         nil,
                         :index          false,
                         :storageHasAVET false,
                         :needsAVET      false,
                         :noHistory      false,
                         :fulltext       false}

What’s the point of these counters though? They’re for stuffing into entity ids!

The Entity Id

The entity id is the foundational data structure of a Datomic database. It is a 64-bit signed long with the following structure in big-endian order:

  1. The sign bit. If set, this is a temporary id (TempId).
  2. A seemingly-unused bit that is always unset. You can manually construct an entity id which has this bit set, and Datomic seems to honor it as-is, but there’s no public api way to set it. I don’t know what this is for.
  3. 20 bits of partition. The highest bit (labeled “PType” in the diagram below) indicates the type of partition number, discussed later.
  4. 42 bits of counter value. This is a number issued by the T or element counter.

Entity Id Structure

To help visualize entity id bits at the repl, we can use the following function:

(defn print-eid
  "Print the bits of a datomic entity id in base 2.
  Separates out the sign, unused, partition, and counter bits visually."
  [^long n]
  (let [s (Long/toBinaryString n)
        s (.concat (.repeat "0" (- 64 (.length s))) s)
        [_ sign unused part counter] (re-matches #"(\d)(\d)(\d{20})(\d{42})" s)]
    (println sign unused part counter)))

A demonstration:

(print-eid (d/t->tx 1000))
0 0 00000000000000000011 000000000000000000000000000000001111101000
|   \____ _____________/ \__ _____________________________________/
|        |                  |
|        |                  \_ Counter bits, in this case the number 1000 
|        |                     from the T counter.
|        \_ Partition bits, in this case the entity id of :db.part/tx
\_ Sign bit

Datomic’s public api to construct an entity id “from scratch” is d/entid-at. It takes some partition entity or ident reference to one, and some counter number. (It can also take a date, but that isn’t interesting to us right now.)

This is usually how you use it:

(d/entid-at db :db.part/db 1)
=> 1

(d/entid-at db :db.part/tx 1)
=> 13194139533313

(d/entid-at db :db.part/user 1)
=> 17592186044417

But you can also use it with raw partition ids.

;; The :db.part/user partition is 4
(= (d/entid-at db :db.part/user 1)
   (d/entid-at db 4 1))
=> true

Note that this use case doesn’t actually need a database–it’s just bit manipulation–but the function still requires one because it’s a wrapper around a method invocation on the database object.

d/t->tx is a special case of entid-at for the transaction partition that doesn’t require a database argument. It doesn’t need one because the transaction partition entity id is hardcoded in every Datomic database.

(= (d/entid-at db :db.part/tx 1)
   (d/entid-at db 3 1)
   (d/t->tx 1))
=> true

Let’s start examining the parts of an Entity Id.

The Counter Field

The counter bits of an entity correspond to the value of the T or element counter at the moment the entity was created.

Entities are created when a tempid exists in transaction data but cannot be resolved to an existing entity id. There is always at least one of these in any transaction: the current transaction itself!

When the transaction-data expander determines it needs to “mint” a new entity, it constructs an entity id from a partition value and either the T counter or element counter, then advances the counter. Partition and attribute entities advance the element counter, and all other entities advance the T counter.

(Determining what partition value to use is complicated–I won’t discuss it here.)

The current transaction is always the first to receive the next-T. As a consequence, the T of transaction ids interleave with the T of entity ids created within the prior transaction. This allows you to perform tricks with d/entid-at and d/seek-datoms to find recently-created entities without using the transaction log.

The public api to access the counter field value is d/tx->t. You’ll notice from its name that it’s meant for transaction ids and T values, but it actually works on any entity id–it just masks out any bits of the entity id that don’t belong to the counter field.

(d/tx->t (d/entid-at db :db.part/user 1))
=> 1
(d/tx->t (d/entid-at db :db.part/tx 1))
=> 1

Because the next-T is issued to new entities without considering partitions, adding partitions doesn’t let you have more entity ids in your Datomic database–the 42 bits of the counter field bounds the theoretical max limit on the number of non-attribute, non-partition entities. Why have partitions at all then?

The Partition Field

Partitions are a mechanism to sort entity ids better, according to some criteria other than creation order. The partition bits are the 20 immediately more-significant bits above the 42 bits of T so that the natural sort order of longs will collate entities with the same partition next to one another. They are a crucial performance optimization because they allow you to sort Datoms into “runs” that are commonly read together and improve the chance that any given query will make use of already-cached index segments. Partitions can also reduce the number of index segments invalidated by new indexes if the writes exhibit some locality too.

Datomic itself uses this to keep transaction entities away from schema entities and user data. Schema entities have partition :db.part/db (always entity id 0) and transaction entities have partition :db.part/tx (always entity id 3), and the default partition for new data is :db.part/user (always entity id 4).

The value in the bits of the partition field has gotten complicated.

Prior to Datomic version 1.0.6711, this was simply the entity id of a partition entity. You can retrieve that entity id with d/part.

(def explicit-part-eid (d/entid-at db :db.part/user 1))

(d/part explicit-part-eid)
=> 4

(d/ident db 4)
=> :db.part/user

(print-eid explicit-part-eid)
0 0 00000000000000000100 000000000000000000000000000000000000000001

On version 1.0.67611 and afterwards, this can also be an implicit partition number if the highest bit of this field (labeled “PType” above) is 1.

d/implicit-part constructs an entity-id where the counter bits are zero, the PType bit is set, and the implicit-partition-number is shifted over into the partition bit fields.

(def mypart (d/implicit-part 1))
=> 2305847407260205056

(print-eid mypart)
0 0 10000000000000000001 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
;;  |--- Note PType bit is set.

Unlike explicit partitions which are always in partition 0 (:db.part/db), the partition of an implicit partition entity id is always itself. The contract of d/part is that it gives you an entity-id that can be used as a partition id, not (or no longer) that it gives you the partition field bits. Implicit partitions are just encoded into the partition field differently than explicit ones.

Because d/part always returns an entity id, it returns implicit partition entity ids unchanged.

(= mypart (d/part mypart))
=> true

Note that implicit partitions are still real, valid entity ids, so you can still assert things about them:

(let [db (:db-after (d/with db [{:db/id (d/implicit-part 0)
                                 :db/doc "implicit partition 0"}]))]
  (d/pull db ['*] (d/implicit-part 0)))
=> #:db{:id 2305843009213693952, :doc "implicit partition 0"}

In a world with implicit partitions, there’s no public api to access the partition bits, but you can get them with this:

(defn partition-bits [^long eid]
  (let [p (d/part eid)]
    ;; implicit-part-id returns nil when given explicit partition ids.
    (if-some [ip (d/implicit-part-id p)]
      (bit-shift-right ^long (d/implicit-part ip) 42)
(-> (d/entid-at db :db.part/user 1)
=> 4
(-> (d/entid-at db (d/implicit-part 1) 1)
=> "10000000000000000001"

“Permanent” Entity Id Recap

We’ve discussed the structure of “permanent” (non-temporary) entity ids. Before we move on, let’s summarize:

  • Entity ids have 20 partition bits and 42 counter bits.
  • “Element” entities (attributes and explicit partitions) have this structure:
    • Partition bits zeroed out and d/part returns 0.
    • Counter bits correspond to the “element” counter value at the moment of entity creation.
  • Explicitly partitioned entities have this structure:
    • Top bit of partition bits is 0.
    • The remaining bits are the entity id of the explicit partition–which is itself also an “element” entity, and so representable with 19 bits anyway.
    • Counter bits correspond to the T counter value at the moment of entity creation.
  • Implicitly partitioned entities:
    • Top bit of partition bits is 1.
    • The remaining partition bits are the implicit-part-id (a number between 0 and 524287 inclusive–19 bits)
    • Counter bits correspond to the T counter value at the moment of entity creation.
  • Implicit partition entities themselves:
    • have the same partition bits as Implicitly Partitioned Entities
    • the counter bits are 0

You’ll notice we haven’t talked about the sign bit yet.

Temporary Entity Ids

A temporary entity id (tempid) is an entity id that is not meant to outlive a single transaction. They are only valid in submitted tx-data and as keys of the :tempids map returned from d/transact, and only exist for the lifetime of transaction preparation and submission, and represent no cross-transaction identity.

They exist only to be replaced by either an existing or a new “permanent” entity id during a transaction.

In modern Datomic, there are three ways to represent a tempid: strings, tempid records, and negative entity ids.

(We won’t talk about the string method.)

Tempid Records

A tempid record, is the thing returned by d/tempid. It’s just a record with two fields: a partition (which can be an entity id, implicit partition id, or an ident keyword that resolves to a partition entity) and a negative number called an idx.

When called with two arguments, the idx value comes from a counter on the peer that starts at -100001. This counter is unrelated to the T and element counters!

;; This is a fresh process to ensure the idx counter is at its starting value.
(require '[datomic.api :as d])
(def tempid (d/tempid :db.part/user))

;; Tempid records have a tagged-value printed form
=> #db/id[:db.part/user -1000001]

(:part tempid)
=> :db.part/user
(:idx tempid)
=> -1000001

;; idx is issued from a single per-peer counter.
(:idx (d/tempid :db.part/db))
=> -1000002
(:idx (d/tempid :db.part/tx))
=> -1000003

Because this counter is per-peer, there’s a chance of collision: you may call (d/tempid :db.part/user) within a peer preparing tx-data and within a transaction function of the same tx-data. To avoid collisions, transactors and peers use disjoint idx ranges as of version 0.9.5561.62 released in October 2017.

When d/tempid is called with two arguments you can set the idx value yourself in the range from -1 to -100000.

Tempid Longs

Tempid records can also be represented as a negative long using the entity id structure. When the sign bit of the entity id is set (i.e. the entity id is negative), the entity id represents a temporary id. The partition bits of that entity id correspond to the partition indicated by the partition field of the record, and the counter bits to the lower 42 bits of the negative number.

You see these tempid entity-ids returned from transactions:

(def tempid (d/tempid :db.part/user -100))

(:tempids (d/with db [{:db/id tempid :db/doc "foo"}]))
=> {-9223350046622220388 17592186045427}
(print-eid -9223350046622220388)
1 0 00000000000000000100 111111111111111111111111111111111110011100

The possibility of idents to reference partitions is why you need d/resolve-tempid: it converts a tempid record to the equivalent tempid entity-id before looking it up in the :tempids map.

There’s no public api to create tempid longs, but you can do it with a little bit-manipulation:

(defn tempid->eid [tempid]
  ;; This handles implicit partitions also.
  (let [part-eid ^long (d/entid db (:part tempid))
        part-bits (if (== 0 ^long (d/part part-eid))
                    (bit-shift-left part-eid 42)
        ;; Mask out partition bit and unused bit from idx
        ;; Keep the sign bit
        temp-and-counter-bits (bit-and-not
                               ^long (:idx tempid)
    ;; Combine sign, partition, and counter fields
    (bit-or temp-and-counter-bits part-bits)))

(tempid->eid (d/tempid :db.part/user -100))
=> -9223350046622220388

That’s all we can say about entity ids. Now we’ll compose entity ids together into Datoms.


A Datom is–at the domain-model level–a tuple of the following elements:

  1. :e An entity id.
  2. :a An attribute entity id.
  3. :v An arbitrary value, sometimes an entity id.
  4. :tx A transaction entity id.
  5. :added A boolean representing a primitive datom operation. “True” means the asserted, “false” means retracted.

Datoms are unique in a database by key [:e :a :v :tx]. Note that :added is not included because you can’t assert and retract same [:e :a :v] in the same transaction.

Concretely–at the data-model level–a Datom is an instance of the datomic.db.Datum class. (Note Datum not Datom!) This class has the following properties:

(->> (#'clojure.reflect/declared-fields datomic.db.Datum)
     (remove #(-> % :flags (contains? :static)))
     (map (juxt :name :type)))
=> ([a int] [tOp long] [v java.lang.Object] [e long])

Clearly the e property holds the :e slot value and the v property the :v slot.

But note two anomalies:

  1. Attributes are entity ids, which are a long, but the a property is an int.
  2. There’s a weird tOp property and no :tx or :added field.

Lets look at these.

The a Property

a is a java int, which is a signed 32 bit number in Java. But it’s supposed to be an entity id, which is a 64 bit long. How can it fit? First, the partition of all attributes is 0, so an attribute id has at most 42 bits of useful precision from the counter field. Second, attribute entity’s counter field bits come from the element counter, which is limited to 19 bits and advances much more slowly than the T counter in a typical database. These two together ensure that the entity id of any attribute will be small enough to fit in 32 bits for even very large, very old databases.

This compression of attribute entity id range saves 4 bytes per Datum in memory.

The tOp Property

The tOp is a fusion of transaction T (not entity id) and operation that lets Datums avoid having an extra boolean field.

Lets look at one:

;; Using a fresh database
(d/basis-t db)
=> 66
;; This will be the next transaction T
(d/next-t db)
=> 1000
;; Let's get a datom object, such as a new :db/txInstant assertion
(def datom (first (:tx-data (d/with db []))))
;; Slots  :e             :a :v                                   :tx            :added
=> #datom[13194139534312 50 #inst"2024-05-16T15:27:56.377-00:00" 13194139534312 true]
(.tOp datom)

What is this mysterious value? It’s a fusion of the transaction entity id’s counter field (a T value) and a bit representing the operation. The T value is shifted right one bit to leave room for the operation bit. The operation bit is encoded into the lowest bit so that the natural sort order of longs will sort retractions before assertions within a transaction.

;; If we undo the left shift, we get the transaction T, which is 1000
(= 1000
   (d/tx->t (:tx datom))
   (bit-shift-right 2001 1))
=> true

;; The lowest bit is the operation.
;; Here it is an assert, thus boolean true, thus bit set
(bit-and 2001 1)
=> 1

;; To make a tOp value, we just do the opposite
 (bit-shift-left ^long (d/tx->t (:tx datom)) 1)
 (if (:added datom) 1 0))
=> 2001

This encoding has two benefits:

By using t instead of tx, we reduce the magnitude of the tOp slot. When encoding this value into Fressian (the on-disk format of Datomic index segments), numbers of smaller magnitude will encode to fewer bytes. In this case, the number 2001 requires only 2 bytes to encode. If it were a full transaction entity id, it would always require 7 bytes because of the position of the partition bits in the long. If it were an unpacked long, it would require a full 8 bytes.

By fusing the operation into the transaction T, we decrease the Fressian size on-disk by one byte, the object size by one field, and save typically 4 bytes in memory for the boolean value itself. The in-memory representation of boolean values is unspecified in Java, but OpenJdk uses 4 bytes (a full int) to represent boolean values. With tOp, this requires only one bit!


We covered a lot of ground! To recap:

  • There are two counters: the T and the element counter.
    • T counter is for normal entities.
    • Element counter is for explicit partition and attribute entities.
  • Counter values are encoded into entity ids when the entity is created:
    • The 42-bit counter field gets the current T or Element counter, depending on the entity type.
    • The 20-bit partition field encodes another entity id into it losslessly by exploiting range restrictions in explicit and implicit partitions.
    • The sign bit signals that the entity id is a temporary id.
  • The Datum class that represents datoms has two clever tricks to reduce its size on-disk and in-memory:
    • The attribute property is an int because no attribute entity id can have more than 19 significant bits.
    • The tOp property encodes tx id and operation boolean field by exploiting the constant fixed partition bits of transaction entity ids.

That’s a fair bit of impressive design even before you get to indexes!